Chicago style referencing is one of the less popular referencing styles in the academia. Yet, it is still widely used by scholars & researchers all over the world. The basic document explaining the rules & standards of Chicago style is called “The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition”, organization's website is chicagomanualofstyle.org. The manual itself is available for sale at online bookstores; however, there is also a great deal of information about this style online.
Whatever type of referencing you have, Privatewriting is able to provide the research and reference it according to your specifications. We have delivered literary thousands of papers and formatted them according to MLA, APA, Harvard & Chicago styles to our customers’ satisfaction.
Paper. Use standard white A4 paper (8.5”x11”).
Font. Use a legible font like Times New Roman, size 12.
Margins. Margins should be from 1” to 1.5” inches on all sides.
Page numbering. The title page is not numbered. The next page after the title one starts with ‘1’ in the upper right-hand corner. Arabic numerals are used for page numbers; pages are numbered consecutively.
1. Type the title of your paper in UPPER CASE.
2. Place it one-third down from the top of the page, you will need to press Enter 7 times. Center your title.
3. Hit Enter 8 times.
5. Type your first name and last name. Press Enter
6. Type the name of your class. Press Enter
7. Type the current date.
Here is a sample title page arranged according to Chicago Style.
Spacing. Use double space throughout your paper.
Indentation. Every new paragraph should be indented. Press TAB to indent your text.
Citation. There are two major ways of citing your sources: footnote format & endnote format. Some scholars call footnote format Chicago Style 16A, while endnote format is called Chicago Style 16B. Schematically, here is what the Chicago Style looks like:
Footnotes/Endnotes or Author-Date system? Which format is right for me?
The short answer would be: refer to your assignment requirements. If you can’t see it or there is no specific requirement, use the following information to determine correct formatting.
Footnote/ Endnote style is mostly preferred in such branches of science as literature, history, and arts. So, if it applies to you, choose that option.
The author-date style is used in the social sciences, so if you study things like economics, history, law, linguistics, psychology, sociology, international relations, anthropology, communication, education, culture, and couple other socially oriented disciplines, the endnote style is exactly what you want.
Footnote/Endnote style requires the use of superscript numbers following the quote or the information taken from a given book/journal. Footnotes/Endnotes are numbered consecutively and their listing on the bibliography page is not necessarily alphabetical – instead, they are numbered in order of appearance. Every superscript number should have corresponding information about the author & the publication in the footnote section or the bibliography page.
Footnotes VS Endnotes
The major difference between footnotes and endnotes is that footnotes contain information about bibliography at the end of the page (at the footer), while the endnote style implies that information about your books is provided at the very end of your paper, in the bibliography section. Hence their names: footnotes come at the foot of the page, while endnotes are placed at its end.
This style is often called the ‘bibliography style’ or ‘Chicago Style 16B’. In its form, it’s very similar to APA or MLA style formatting since it requires the author to cite the author by the last name and provide the year of publication in parentheses.
This style requires no numbering of your sources, in contrast, all of your books, journals, articles should be listed in alphabetical order on a separate page called ‘bibliography’ or ‘references’. Every entry should start with a new line and have the so-called ‘hanging line’ protruding into the margin by 1 inch.
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Chicago/Turabian Basics: Footnotes
Why We Use Footnotes
The style of Chicago/Turabian we use requires footnotes rather than in-text or parenthetical citations. Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used. Any additional usage, simply use the author’s last name, publication title, and date of publication.
Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.
In the text:
Throughout the first half of the novel, Strether has grown increasingly open and at ease in Europe; this quotation demonstrates openness and ease.1
In the footnote:
1. Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity, 2009), 34-40.
When citing a source more than once, use a shortened version of the footnote.
2. James, The Ambassadors, 14.
Citing sources with more than one author
If there are two or three authors of the source, include their full names in the order they appear on the source. If there are more than three authors, list only the first author followed by “et al.” You should list all the authors in the bibliography.
John K. Smith, Tim Sampson, and Alex J. Hubbard, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.
John K. Smith, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.
Citing sources with other contributor information
You may want to include other contributor information in your footnotes such as editor, translator, or compiler. If there is more than one of any given contributor, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.
John Smith, Example Book, trans. Bill McCoy and Tim Thomas (New York: Random House, 2000), 15.
John Smith, Example Book, ed. Tim Thomas (New York: Random House, 1995), 19.
If the contributor is taking place of the author, use their full name instead of the author’s and provide their contribution.
John Smith, trans., Example Book (New York: Random House, 1992), 25.
Citing sources with no author
It may not be possible to find the author/contributor information; some sources may not even have an author or contributor- for instance, when you cite some websites. Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual.
Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.
Citing a part of a work
When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them. Below are different templates:
Webster’s Dictionary, vol. 4 (Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995).
Part of a multivolume work:
John Smith, ed., “Anthology,” in Webster’s Dictionary, ed. John Smith, vol 2. of Webster’s Dictionaries (Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995).
Chapter in a book:
Garrett P. Serviss, “A Trip of Terror,” in A Columbus of Space (New York: Appleton, 1911), 17-32.
Introduction, afterword, foreword, or preface:
Scott R Sanders, introduction to Tounchstone Anthology of Contemporary Creative Nonfiction: Work from 1970 to Present, ed. Lex Williford and Michael Martone (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007), x-xii.
Article in a periodical:
William G. Jacoby, “Public Attitudes Toward Public Spending,” American Journal of Political Science 38, no. 2 (May 1994): 336-61.
Citing group or corporate authors
In your footnotes, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author.
American Medical Association, Journal of the American Medical Association: 12-43.
Citing an entire source
When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore, simply exclude the page numbers from the footnote.
John K. Smith, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010).
Citing indirect sources
When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. If using an unpublished address, cite only in the paper/writing. If using a published address, use a footnote with the following format.
Paula Abdul mentioned in her interview on Nightline…
Zouk Mosbeh, “Localization and the Training of Linguistic Mediators for the Third Millennium,” Paper presented at The Challenges of Translation & Interpretation in the Third Millennium, Lebanon, May 17, 2002.
Citing the Bible
The title of books in the Bible should be abbreviated. Chapter and verses should be separated by a colon. You should include the version you are referencing.
Prov. 3:5-10 AV.
Citing online sources
Generally, follow the same principals of footnotes to cite online sources. Refer to the author if possible and include the URL.
Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity: 2009), http://books.google.com.
Bhakti Satalkar, “Water Aerobics,” http://www.buzzle.com, (July 15, 2010).
Citing online sources with no author
If there is no author, use either the article or website title to begin the citation. Be sure to use quotes for article titles and include the URL.
“Bad Strategy: At E3, Microsoft and Sony Put Nintendo on the Defense,” BNET, www.cbsnews.com/moneywatch, (June 14, 2010)